The catch mechanics have remained relatively unchanged in Pokémon Scarlet & Violet but there are a couple of new changes. While you can't throw Poké Balls to catch Pokémon on the overworld, you will have the ability to throw balls to start a battle and can catch a Pokémon off guard
All Tera Raid Battles will result in a guaranteed capture.
There is a new element involved in this game, however. If you have already caught a Pokémon then every time you try to capture another of the same species, it will happear to have a Critical Capture if it is to catch a Pokémon. This is purely visual and only happens when you catch the Pokémon to speed up the process.
There is also a difference in that the different badges will increase the level of Pokémon that will obey you, as standard, but when the Pokémon are above the level of your current badge level. The catch rate is calculated at 0.8 to the power of each badge you don't have, so at the start trying to catch a Level 50 Pokémon would only have 26.2% of its usual catch rate.